The “Mary” Month of May

Ireland by Alex Gindin

Why is May considered a Catholic month of dedication to Mary? This post investigates that question from an Anthropological perspective. It delves into broader issues of Springtime and the multifarious influences of this seasonal change on humanity. The leitmotif of this post is that Springtime involves a great deal of sexual reproduction and many of us do not like to mention this. This pressure to sublimate the sex out of the season makes May more anthropologically interesting.

The title of this post plays on,”The Merry Month of May”, a poem by Thomas Dekker (c. 1572–1632), an English playwright that indexes “The Spring Rite”. The Spring Rite Dekker references is Beltane, a grand Celtic festival that marks the high point of Spring and the coming of summer. Beltane has motivated much art.

Robert GouletJulie AndrewsRichard Burton, and the original Broadway cast of Camelot

Camelot, the 1960s musical best known for being linked to the Kennedy presidency was another opportunity for pop culture to highlight the potent power of May. In this version of The Lusty Month Of May, performed by Julie Andrews, plays very obviously on the temptation of this time of year.

It’s May! It’s May! That gorgeous holiday, When ev’ry maiden prays that her lad, Will be a cad! It’s mad! It’s gay! A libelous display! Those dreary vows that ev’ryone takes, Ev’ryone breaks. Ev’ryone makes divine mistakes, The lusty month of May!

The Lusty Month Of May

But the excitement of May is not always welcomed with open arms. For example, the normally avant garde French had real trouble accepting classical music’s embrace of springtime change. When Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring Ballet premiered in Paris in May 1913, there was a riot at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in response.

Incidentally, the following clip starts with the particularly poignant music that set everyone on edge in 1913. This is Yuri Possokhov’s gripping interpretation of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring is a that premiered during the 2013 San Francisco Ballet season.


San Francisco Ballet
in “The Rite of Spring”

Beltane has also inspired some classical anthropology. In The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, anthropologist James Frazer argued that Beltane, the May 1 Spring Rite and Samhain, the November 1st Winter Rite were the two most important parts of the year for Celts, who were descendants of the pastoralists of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. The subsistence patterns of pastoralists involve a major effort to move their herds in the Spring.

These patterns put them at odds with their indigenous Europeans neighbors who, as agriculturists, followed a subsistence pattern that emphasised the Fall harvest. And since the Roman Empire was agriculturally based and Christian, the era of Spring celebrations were in decline. This same trend continued when Europeans migrated to the New World, where, under the strain of Puritan values, there is almost no reference to the phallic Maypole and its lovely fertility Maypole Dance tradition.

If you are or have been a Catholic middle or high school teacher, you know that May is a big deal. On the one hand, it is a month of devotion to the BVM, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. But it is also a time when managing students becomes more challenging. For those of us on the Northern Hemisphere, Springtime’s fruitful proliferation unravels in the form of student exuberance. They want the year to end, they want to be outside for recess longer and they come back to class sweaty and preoccupied with the jouissance of the season.

 Teacher explaining optical calculations 1970 by Immo Wegmann

What you may not know is that this problem is not new. The May devotion to the Virgin Mary originated in the late 1700 at one of the Jesuit’s first high schools, the Roman College established by St. Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus.

The facade of the Roman College, Established 1551

“The May devotion [to our Lady] in its present form originated at Rome where Father Latomia of the Roman College of the Society of Jesus [the Jesuits], to counteract infidelity and immorality among the students, made a vow at the end of the eighteenth century to devote the month of May to Mary. From Rome the practice spread to the other Jesuit colleges and thence to nearly every Catholic church of the Latin rite (Albers, “Bluethenkranze”, IV, 531 sq.). This practice is the oldest instance of a devotion extending over an entire month.”

Catholic Encyclopedia, “Special Devotions for Months”

I draw your attention to the phrase, “to counteract infidelity and immorality among the students“. Although this may sound overly harsh to some, I believe it is more indicative of the desire of both students and teachers to end the school year and start the summer! Coincidently or syncretisticly, this could also be a reminder to the young that Spring is upon us and a chaste attitude has its merits, at least until the school year ends!

Syncretism is an anthropological concept that refers to the blending to two distinct cultural traditions. Holy Trinity Church Ramsgate has a fantastic desprion of this on their website, which I will cite heavenly here:

Mary Month – Why May?
Some have pointed to the fact that, in classic western culture (both Greek and Roman), May was recognized as the season of the beginning of new life. In the Greek world, May was dedicated to the goddess Artemis and associated with fecundity. Roman culture linked the month of May to Flora, the goddess of bloom and blossoms – this led to the custom of ludi florales (or floral games) which took place at the very end of April as a preparation for entering into the month of May.

It seems that this ancient tradition of connecting May with new life and fecundity, led to a realization that May is very much the month of motherhood – this may be the reason why Mother’s Day is celebrated during May not only in the United States but in many countries and cultures of both the East and the West…

…The connection between motherhood and May led Christians eventually to adopt May as Mary’s Month. May is the Month of Our Lady precisely as the Mother of God. So wrote the [Jesuit] priest-poet Fr. Gerard Manley Hopkins, in his marian classic “May Magnificat.”

Holy Trinity Church Ramsgate

Postscript

Although today is also Mayo Day, Ireland’s International day of celebration of the 3.5 million people, like myself, with roots in Ireland’s western county, the word “Mayo” derives from the Irish, “Mhaigh Eo” meaning “plain of the yew trees”, and not Mary.

Another common misunderstanding is the Coast Guard’s distress call, MAYDAY “MAYDAY MAYDAY”. This was derived from the French m’aider (i.e., short for “help me”) as a solution for French and English radio controllers in the 1920s. Although it has nothing to do with Mary or Spring, helping each other is always a good note to end upon, in any season!

What’s a “fête du prénom”?

Today, July 25, is the Feast Day of St. James The Apostle

Today, July 25, is the Feast Day of St. James The Apostle. I prefer the appellation “James the Greater” but that is just my false ego getting the better of me.  

James and his brother John were part of a family fishing outfit on the Sea of Galilee. I imagine it was called, “Zebedee and Sons”. Jesus came along and busted up their business by successfully inviting the two brothers to join him as apostles. They were such ruffians that they were referred to as Boanerges by the gang. Although this is normally translated from the Greek as, “Sons of Thunder”, it is most likely a Galilean dialectal corruption of Hebrew bene reghesh “sons of rage”. Who knows, maybe Zebedee was ok with letting go of these two trouble makers.

Although the brothers James and John did soften after their years with Jesus, the Orden de Santiago (Order of Santiago or Order of St. James of the Sword) brought whole new levels of “thunder” to this Saint’s name. Patron Saint of Spain, the Orden de Santiago was a 12th century holy order of knights (like the Knights Templar), whose first mission was to protect Catholic pilgrims on the Camino_de_Santiago (Way of St. James) as they walked to the shrine of St. James whose remains are said to be in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia

Since I hope to bike or walk this path myself, it holds significance for me. In Islam, if one goes to Mecca on pilgrimage, you receive the title El-Hajj (Pilgrim) afterword. Catholicism has no such title but I will happily answer to “Pilgrim” if I ever make the trip!

After I finished my service in the Peace Corps, I lived in Cairo for 3 years in a Jesuit community with priests from Egypt, Syria, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. At Collège de la Sainte Famille, the house language was French and many of that community’s traditions were also French. The fête du prénom or “name day” was one particular custom that I brought home with me. When the first fête du prénom was celebrated, I assumed it was a biological birthday because I had never heard that phrase while learning French in Mali with the Peace Corps. I assumed the French say fête du prénom and West Africans say fête du anniversaire [sic]. I later figured it out my mistake.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 440px-fanny_brate-namnsdag.jpg
A Day of Celebration. A painting by Swedish artist Fanny Brate depicting preparations for a name day celebration. Oil on canvas, 1902.

In many Orthodox and Catholic countries, “name day” is a custom. It works like this. If your name is Fergus and the Feast of St. Fergus is March 30, then on that day, you are treated to something special. My Irish grandparents would say a rosary for you then treat you like a king for a day.

For the Jesuits in Egypt, this received more attention than a community members’ biological birthday. It was the one day we got cake after dinner! Now with a family of my own, biological birthdays receives lots of attention but our Saints’ Days get celebrated too.

In fact, this tradition goes into high gear during late July because half of my family saint days fall within a few days time. Between July 22-26, four of the 8 people that comprised our family for the past 10 years have Saints Days. 

July 22 Saint Mary Magdalene for my eldest, Lilly Magelena. Lilly also has a feast day for her first name (July 14 Saint Lily of the Mohawks) but Magelena always gets the most attention. 

July 25 Saint James the Apostle for me.

July 26 Saint Joaquin and Anne for Joaquin, my son and his two Godmothers, Anna, my mother in law (recently departed), and his Godmother Anne.

Feast of St. Mary Magdalene: Prostitute, Wife of Jesus or Apostle to the Apostles?

TINTORETTO - Magdalena penitente (Musei Capitolini, Roma, 1598-1602) - copia.jpg
TINTORETTO -Magdalena penitente (Musei Capitolini, Roma, 1598-1602)

My eldest child’s middle name is Magdalena. It was chosen to honor Saint Mary Magdalene and her Egyptian uncle Madgi. July 22nd is Saint Mary Magdalene’s feast day, the day she is celebrated by Catholics, Anglicans, Lutherans and Eastern Orthodox. On this day, I go to great lengths to celebrate the glory of this “Apostle of Apostles” and “Patron Saint of Contemplatives”.

What most are unaware of is that there were a few people named Mary in the Bible. One of them was a trusted friend of Jesus. One of them was a sister of his friend, Lazarus. One of them was most likely a prostitute. Although there is nothing wrong with being a sexworker, the early Church is argued to have used this last Mary as a means to demean the Mary who was Jesus’ trusted companion. As a result of their work, rather than being the leader of the Apostles, she, the only woman that was part of Jesus’ ministry, becomes little more than a wretched follower of Christ, grateful for His forgiveness but in no way influential with the running of things in the early church. 

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is annibale_carracci_-_holy_women_at_christ_s_tomb_-_wga4454.jpg
Holy Women at Christ’s Tomb (c. 1590s) by Annibale Carracci. In Matthew 28:1–10, Mary Magdalene and “the other Mary” encounter an angel at the tomb, who tells them that Christ has risen.

Fresno City College Distinguished Alumnus, Robert Cargill, Associate Professor of classics and religious studies at the University of Iowa pointed out that,

“There are many scholars who argue that because Jesus empowered women to such an extent early in his ministry, it made some of the men who would lead the early church later on uncomfortable,”.

“How Early Church Leaders Downplayed Mary Magdalene’s Influence by Calling Her a Whore” (Sarah Pruitt) https://www.history.com/news/mary-magdalene-jesus-wife-prostitute-saint

Cargill continues that the two responses to this observation was to make her a repentant prostitute or a lover of Jesus. The Last Temptation of Christ and The Da Vinci Code are two of the more popular versions of the idea that Mary was Jesus’ lover or wife. There is no biblical evidence to support these interpretations.

DaVinciCode.jpg
Image of The Da Vinci Code
Black thorns against a blood red background.
Image of the Last Temptation of Christ Film

These interpretations are just as likely as the Magalena comics series that describes Mary as the mother of a line of sexy female warriors who work for the Catholic Church in secret. 

MagdalenaTPB.jpg
Cover of Magdalena TPB by Eric Basaldua

Again, none of these interpretations are supported in the Bible. Additionally, all of these interpretations sexualise this companion of Jesus to such an extent that her role among the early followers of Christ is limited to lower, baser, non-intellectual drives. 

What I take from this is that Mary Magdalene was a trusted member of Jesus’ inner circle. She was a disciple. Although the Church that came up after Jesus was misogynistic and nuclear family oriented, that was not Jesus’ mission. He spent his time with single men and women, tax collectors, prostitutes, lepers and other outcasts.  

In 1969, Pope Paul VI wrote an Mysterii Paschalis or “official letter” pointing out that Pope Gregory the Great was incorrect when he referred to these different Marys as one person in 591. It took the Catholic Church 1378 years to make this correction. But to this day, when I tell people her middle name, they still wonder at why I would name my first born child after a prostitute.

My response: I didn’t. I named her after the Apostle to the Apostles, which I take to mean, the leader of the Apostles and the first person who the risen Christ showed himself to.

Postscript added in April 2021

The Meaning of Mary Magdalene:Discovering the Woman at the Heart of Christianity By: Cynthia Bourgeault goes much further into these matters than I ever could. It’s a great read I just found. Below is a brief description of the text I took form the author’s website.

Mary Magdalene is one of the most influential symbols in the history of Christianity—yet, if you look in the Bible, you’ll find only a handful of verses that speak of her. How did she become such a compelling saint in the face of such paltry evidence? In her effort to answer that question, Cynthia Bourgeault examines the Bible, church tradition, art, legend, and newly discovered texts to see what’s there. She then applies her own reasoning and intuition, informed by the wisdom of the ages-old Christian contemplative tradition. What emerges is a radical view of Mary Magdalene as Jesus’ most important disciple, the one he considered to understand his teaching best. That teaching was characterized by a nondualistic approach to the world and by a deep understanding of the value of the feminine. Cynthia shows how an understanding of Mary Magdalene can revitalize contemporary Christianity, how Christians and others can, through her, find their way to Jesus’ original teachings and apply them to their modern lives.

Sugar-Free Irish Soda Bread

For the 2018 St. Patrick’s Day, I shared a secret recipe for Irish Soda Bread. This year, I’m sharing a new modification to this recipe, one that can be consumed by those who suffer from Fructose malabsorption, a digestive disorder that, though slimming, is a real challenge in a nation that adds sugar to everything. Although the pathophysiology of this digestive disorder is fascinating (see below), the lifestyle modifications it requires of those who are or live with those with this disorder is difficult.

Guest Vlogger Lilly Mullooly reports on this new recipe in the following:

SUGAR-FREE IRISH SODA BREAD (Lilly Mullooly).

unnamed

Fructose Malabsorption

Beta-D-Fructofuranose.svg

Pathophysiology

Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine without help of digestive enzymes. Even in healthy persons, however, only about 25–50 g of fructose per sitting can be properly absorbed. People with fructose malabsorption absorb less than 25 g per sitting.

Fructose that has not been adequately absorbed is fermented by intestinal bacteria producing hydrogencarbon dioxidemethane and short-chain fatty acids.This abnormal increase in hydrogen may be detectable with the hydrogen breath test.

The physiological consequences of fructose malabsorption include increased osmotic load, rapid bacterial fermentation, altered gastrointestinal motility, the formation of mucosal biofilm and altered profile of bacteria. These effects are additive with other short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates such as sorbitol.

Restricting dietary intake of free fructose and/or fructans may provide symptom relief in a high proportion of patients with functional gut disorders. (https://www.wikipedia.org/)

Ye Olde Mullooly Irish Soda Bread

Here is the Ancient Formula devised by leprechauns in a mist-shrouded vale long before the dawn of recorded time. It was passed on secretly through the mother’s lineage. How I got my hands on it is a mystery the world may never know. But every Saint Patrick’s Day I break it out, go over to Bill’s house, and cook multiple loaves. The highlight of the day is the ceremonial First Bite, which Bill loves. After the bread cools, I distribute a loaf or two to family members in town. It never lasts long.
Ye Olde Mullooly Irish Soda Bread
2 cups flour
2 tablespoons brown sugar
11/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons unsalted butter
1 cup buttermilk
1/2 cup of golden raisins
In a medium-sized bowl combine flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, butter and salt. Stir to blend. Add buttermilk and mix thoroughly into a soft dough. Add in raisins.
Gently knead, then form the dough into a round loaf. Place on a lightly oiled pan.
With a sharp knife inscribed a cross about 1/2 inch deep in the across the center of the round loaf. Bake at 375 for 40 minutes, until a medium golden brown. Remove from pan, place flat side down on a wire rack to let cool. Let Seanie Fergus have the First Bite.
Mind you, these are suggested guidelines to make one loaf. I usually deviate from the teaspoon/tablespoon rigidity, and get pretty liberal with the amounts as the multiple mixtures go on. Especially with the raisins, the more the better. My policy: a raisin in every bite!
Enjoy, and Happy Saint Patrick’s Day!
Happy to share the Ancient Formula with you,
Mike (relation of TheAnthroGeek)

Ethnographic Opportunity Analysis Fall 2018

Ethnographic Opportunity Analysis FL18
For Students of Entrep 81:
This will be your Activity 3
Part I – 9/18/17 (Presentation)
Due Date 9/27/17 (Upload the report to the portal)
Part II – 10/2/17 (to review the activity)
Send questions to Prof. Mullooly at Jmullooly AT csufresno.edu

Today, I gave a presentation about TheAnthroGuys‘ core competency: Analytic Induction that gets practiced in search of opportunities to “add value“.

This is a rather clunky way to express what we do but we are still sharpening our ‘laser focus’ so bear with us.  Once we reach Gladwell’s 10,000 hours, I’m sure it will sound better.

Ethnographers and entrepreneurs share a reliance on inductive skills to accomplish their goals.  Once this is understood, we can learn a great deal from each other.

The presentation can be found here:

Ethnographic opportunity analysis FL17 part1 (Mullooly)

In two weeks, I will return to their class to continue this discussion.  My hope is that some – if not all – of these students will see the value of this skill set.

Elsewhere, we have observed that our world is utterly overshadowed by ignorance, yet few people notice this.  Ethnographers and entrepreneurs share a reliance on inductive skills to accomplish their goals.  Once this is understood, we can learn a great deal from each other.

It is important to note that the similarities between anthropologists and entrepreneurs are numerous. The table below illustrates this point:

Anthropologists   Entrepreneurs Application
Trained to think holistically Intuitively holistic visionary, iconoclastic
Take an evolutionary approach Forward-looking know future demands
Seek the insider perspective Intuitively know consumers wants know when something will have value to others
Trained to be inductive Intuitively inductive keen observers, see openings

Other helpful guides include:

Read this article http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/03/anthropology-inc/309218/?single_page=true from The Atlantic entitled, “Anthropology Inc.”.

Or, Watch the clip that was attached to the above article  http://bcove.me/k6szvgkh from The Atlantic.

-Check out: “A Crash Course on Creativity” (Tina Seelig, Executive Director, Stanford Technology Ventures Program)

-View the following 3 min video entitled: Field Observation with Fresh Eyes by Tom Kelley | IDEO

-View the following 4 min video entitled: Thinking Like a Traveler by Tom Kelley | IDEO

-Read: “Can’t You Just Ask People?” (Delcore)
-Watch: Parc’s use of these techniques.
-Define: The notion of “workarounds
-Define: Ethnography
-Define: Thick Description

Assignment

The directions for the Assignment are in the presentation slides.

Assessment

I have included how the assignments are evaluated but the main point is that this is NOT rocket science. Rather, it’s social science!  Applied systematically, humans’ natural observational skills can notice things that are typically ignored.  With some analysis, suggestions can be made to improve lives, products, profit margins, whatever.

If you have further questions about the assignment or the course, feel free to contact me.

Note, the following table is used to evaluate these assignments.

LINK TO Ethnographic Opportunity Analysis Assignment Rubric

Michael Scroggins’ “Ignoring Ignorance: Notes on Pedagogical Relationships in Citizen Science”

My personal desire to question deduction’s seduction has motivated my search for the truth in many different places. Although some avenues of inquiry have proffered little, I was excited to find Michael Scroggins’ “Ignoring Ignorance: Notes on Pedagogical Relationships in Citizen Science” in Engaging Science, Technology, and Society 3 (2017).

It is high time that we let go of our adoration of “knowledge” and the high price that that form of worship requires and look more honestly and empirically at the world. The following quotation depicts the value that can be gained by problematizing knowledge and ignorance from Scroggins’ refreshingly new angle.

Theoretically, this article seeks to broaden the conceptualization of ignorance within STS by drawing on a line of theory developed in the philosophy and anthropology of education to argue that ignorance can be productively conceptualized as a state of possibility and that doing so can enable more democratic forms of citizen science. In contrast to conceptualizations of ignorance as a lack, lag, or manufactured product, ignorance is developed here as both the opening move in scientific inquiry and the common ground over which that inquiry proceeds.Scroggins 2017
My hope is that this article is the start of a new approach that will result in more realistic appraisals. This ethnographic report of the struggles of citizen scientists comes from the field of STS (Science, Technology & Society) but do not assume that such an approach is limited to the “tech world”. We can attribute much of these first steps to Columbia Universtiy it seems. Scroggins, a Columbia graduate is building his argument upon Varenne and Firestein, two Columbia faculty from two different colleges who are working from the same idea yet from very different perspectives. Whereas Varenne’s search for value in ignorance is grounded in Ranciere’s philosophy of education, Firestein’s approach is grounded in the philosophy of science. Regardless of their varying starting points, we can see that the value of this idea is richest in its application as Scroggins has so eloquently illustrated.

Cites Sources

Ethnographic Opportunity Analysis

Yesterday, I gave a presentation about TheAnthroGuys‘ core competency: Analytic Induction that gets practiced in search of opportunities to “add value“.

This is a rather clunky way to express what we do but we are still sharpening our ‘laser focus’ so bear with us.  Once we reach Gladwell’s 10,000 hours, I’m sure it will sound better.

Ethnographers and entrepreneurs share a reliance on inductive skills to accomplish their goals.  Once this is understood, we can learn a great deal from each other.

The presentation can be found here:

Ethnographic opportunity analysis sp16 part1(mullooly) from James Mullooly PhD

In a few weeks, I will return to their class to continue this discussion.  My hope is that some – if not all – of these students will see the value of this skill set.

 

Elsewhere, we have observed that our world is utterly overshadowed by ignorance, yet few people notice this.  Ethnographers and entrepreneurs share a reliance on inductive skills to accomplish their goals.  Once this is understood, we can learn a great deal from each other.

It is important to note that the similarities between anthropologists and entrepreneurs are numerous. The table below illustrates this point:

Anthropologists   Entrepreneurs Application
Trained to think holistically Intuitively holistic visionary, iconoclastic
Take an evolutionary approach Forward-looking know future demands
Seek the insider perspective Intuitively know consumers wants know when something will have value to others
Trained to be inductive Intuitively inductive keen observers, see openings

Other helpful guides include:

Read this article http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/03/anthropology-inc/309218/?single_page=true from The Atlantic entitle, “Anthropology Inc.”.

Or, Watch the clip that was attached to the above article  http://bcove.me/k6szvgkh from The Atlantic.

-Check out: “A Crash Course on Creativity” (Tina Seelig, Executive Director, Stanford Technology Ventures Program)

-View the following 3 min video entitled: Field Observation with Fresh Eyes by Tom Kelley | IDEO

-View the following 4 min video entitled: Thinking Like a Traveler by Tom Kelley | IDEO

-Read: “Can’t You Just Ask People?” (Delcore)

-Watch: Parc’s use of these techniques.

-Define: The notion of “workarounds”

-Define: Ethnography

Assignment

The directions for the Assignment are in the presentation slides.

Assessment

I have included how the assignments are evaluated but the the main point is that this is NOT rocket science. Rather , it’s social science!  Applied systematically, humans’ natural observational skills can notice things that are typically ignored.  With some analysis, suggestions can be made to improve lives, products, profit margins, whatever.

If you have further questions about the assignment or the course, feel free to contact me.

Note, the following table is used to evaluate these assignments.

LINK TO Ethnographic Opportunity Analysis Assignment Rubric

The Kids These Days!!!

Apocryphal or not, I love the idea that Plato carried a sentiment about the younger generation that we hold today. The next time you are thinking, “the kids these days are so….” remember that that may not be as unique an observation as you assume.
Socrates_Louvre
The children now love luxury; they have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise. Children are now tyrants, not the servants of their households. They no longer rise when elders enter the room. They contradict their parents, chatter before company, gobble up dainties at the table, cross their legs, and tyrannize their teachers.
Attributed to SOCRATES by Plato, according to William L. Patty and Louise S. Johnson, Personality and Adjustment, p. 277 (1953).
Below, I have made my own version of this sentiment to update it into current language.
 Patty& Johnson                                    Mullooly
The children now love luxury;
they have bad manners,
contempt for authority;
they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise.
Children are now tyrants,
not the servants of their households.
They no longer rise when elders enter the room.
They contradict their parents,
chatter before company,
gobble up dainties at the table,
cross their legs, and tyrannize their teachers.
Kids these days are self-indulgent;
they have bad manners,
contempt for authority;
they show disrespect for elders and love gossip in stead of work.
The kids these days are self absorbed, not members of their households.
They are rube to adults.
They contradict their parents,
openly gossip before company,
eat like pigs at the table,
slouch in their seats,
and disobey their teachers.